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論文基本資料
篇  名 分佈式領導的意義、構面與主張
並列篇名 無並列篇名
作  者 賴志峰
發表期刊 教育研究月刊
出版年份 2008 年
卷  期 171 期
頁  次 p.28~40
關鍵字
語言別 中文
中文摘要

組識有許多領導者,不只有一個領導者。領導不只存在於頂端的個人,每一個人都以一種或其他方式扮演領導者的角色。(Goleman, 2002: 14)
我不只運用我擁有的全部智慧,而且還使用所能借到的所有智慧。(Wilson, 1912)
領導存在於社會關係和組織,牽涉目的和方向,是一種影響的過程,也是一種功能;領導是情境的、權變的,沒有一種有效的領導公式可以應用在所有情境,應該視社會組織的本質、所追求的目標、牽涉的個人、資源和時間、領導者的特性等因素而定(Leithwood & Riehl, 2005)。在以往,學校領導經常被認為是校長這個職位,這樣的看法將領導限制在一個人,且是寂寞的領導,但在最近,集權於一人的信念已遭到挑戰,現在比以前更經常討論到分佈式領導(distributed leadership)、領導團隊和分享式領導(Southworth, 2004)。然而,改進學生學習是學校領導的重要功能,學校領導主要是由校長和教師行使,但有可能也分佈在其他人身上,包括校長領導、教師領導及分佈式領導(Leithwood & Riehl, 2005)。因此,分佈式領導將領導的權力和責任分佈於學校組織成員的身上,符合校園民主的潮流趨勢,校長、行政人員與教師之間建立更緊密的連結關係,也是將學校領導聚焦於提升學生學習的具體展現。
就領導的發展階段而言,首先,Bryman(1992)將領導理論的演進區分為特質取向、型態取向、權變取向、新型領導取向;其後,Doyle與Smith(2001)則將近80年以來的領導模式,歸類為特質、行為、權變、轉型領導等四個領導理論的世代,上述兩者的分類方式較接近;最近,Jameson(2006)修正上述的分類,提出五種的領導類型,依序分別是:一、特質領導;二、行為或型態領導;三、情境或權變領導;四、轉型、交易和魅力領導;五、分佈式和分享式領導。從上述學者的分類方式可知,分佈式領導不但屬於新型領導取向,而且成為當前亟待深入探究的領導模式。
Gronn(2006)認為在領導研究的領域,相對來說,分佈式領導是新的產品(new kid on the block),然而,「分佈式領導」一詞的正式出現,是在1951年Gibb所撰寫《參與式團體的動態》(Dynamics of participative groups)一書中,在該書的第四章〈分享與領導〉中,Gibb界定獨裁式(autocratic)、家長式(paternalistic)、個人式(individualistic)和參與式(participative)等四種領導的環境,其中,前三種氛圍是由領導者決定,參與式則是由群體所決定(引自Lucia, 2004)。然而,分佈式領導的概念更可追溯至西元前1215年的《出埃及記》,Moses的岳父Jethro提出分佈式領導模式的概念給Moses做為決定的參考,Jethro說:「你這件事做得不好。你和這些百姓必都疲憊,因為這事太重,你獨自一人辦理不了。」(《出埃及記》──第十八章17-18句)Jethro認為,Moses如此領導民眾太辛苦,基於偉大的人不只讓自己發揮長處,也要讓他人成為有用的人,故建議將領導的責任分佈給其他人(引自MacBeath, Oduro, & Waterhouse, 2004),因此,分佈式領導的概念很久之前就已出現,並不是全新的概念。
從百姓中挑選有才能的人,就是敬畏神、誠實無妄、恨不義之財的人,派他們做千夫長、百夫長、五十夫長、十夫長、管理百姓。請他們隨時審判百姓,大事都要呈到你這裡,小事他們自己可以審判。這樣,你就輕省些,他們也可以同當此任。(《出埃及記》──第十八章21-22句)
近年來,分佈式領導受到國外學術界的重視,逐漸進行有系統地探討,然而,目前國內在此一議題之研究仍有很大的發展空間,希望透過本文之整理與歸納,達到拋磚引玉的效果。以下先針對分佈式領導的意義進行探究,再綜合目前研究的發現,分別探究分佈式領導的構面及主張,最後,提出本文的結語,以做為領導實踐和未來研究之參考。

英文摘要

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