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篇  名 國小一年級中文讀寫障礙學生字詞學習特質之研究
並列篇名 CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIOR OF FIRST GRADERS WITH READING DISABILITIES IN LEARNING CHINESE CHARACTERS
作  者 林素貞
發表期刊 特殊教育研究學刊
出版年份 1998 年
卷  期 16 期
頁  次 p.185~202
關鍵字
語言別 中文
中文摘要

本研究擬從基礎性研究觀點,採用質的研究方式,探討國小一年級中文讀寫障礙學生的字詞學習行為之特質。
本研究對象母群體乃由臺中縣和臺中市各取一所國小之一年級學生共996人,最後再從其中篩選出18名學生為本研究對象。此研究對象之選取主要以國語科之學習表現居全班之倒數五名的學生,再加上國語科教師之推薦,排除任何感官障礙(例如視覺障礙、聽覺障礙、腦性麻痺等)、智能障礙、情緒障礙、以及文化不利等狀況,再綜合研究者之初步教室自然觀察結果所成。
本研究方法計有:(1)教室情境自然觀察記錄,(2)研究對象之語言與認知發展之評估,以及(3)相關資料之蒐集,例如回家作業,考卷,個案發展史等。
本研究結果發現:(1)在大班級教學情境中,本研究對象常出現跟不上其他同學的朗讀和手寫字的速度、聽不懂老師的指令或說明、或是無法銜接上教師的教學流程進度。(2)根據語言與認知發展的評估資料顯示,本研究對象之語言與認知發展與一般正常兒童並未有項目量上的差異,但是確實有質方面的發展之不足。(3)本研究對象的中文字書寫筆跡特徵,在此一年級階段仍無法發現一致性之特徵,亦即是其異質性高於其同質性;並且此資料必須由其考卷作答獲知,一般回家作業或是課堂習作的書寫狀況,並不易顯示出本研究對象在中文字之書寫上的障礙現象。
本研究最後提出三點教學上之建議,以及倡導在一年級下學期開始,就應該安置中文讀寫障礙學生和疑似中文讀寫障礙個案至資源教室進行補救教學,以期達到早日回歸主流之目標。

英文摘要

Based on a national survey in 1993, among the population of school age in special education, 20.53% were students with learning disabilities. Among the subtypes of learning disabilities, reading disability was the most common one. However, there is little basic research about the characteristics of learning behaviors and performances of the Chinese students who have reading disabilities. This is the first year report of a three-year follow-up research that was conducted to understand the characteristics of Chinese students with reading disabilities. This study used a qualitative approach to pursuit the goals of this research.
The participants of this research were 18 students in total. They come from two primary schools located separately in Taichung city and Taichung county. The criteria that were used to choose the participants were the following: First, participants were the five students of each class whose scores in the Chinese Language Arts were the lowest of the class. Second, the students who were mentally retarded, had emotional problems, hearing and visual impairments or were culturally disadvantaged were excluded. Third, the researchersch39r observations of the students in their Chinese Language Arts classes were taken into consideration. Three methods were used in this research: (1) the observation of classroom interaction, (2) the related data such as homework, tests, personal history of development and (3) the assessment of language and cognition development.
There were three findings in this research: (1) concerning the speed of reading and handwriting in a regular school class, the participants could not keep up with the majority of students; they also had problems understanding the teachersch39r instructions and often lost track of proceedings in the classroom. (2) concerning participantsch39r difficulties with handwriting, there was more variety than similarity between the participants; this was shown in the tests of participants, but not in their homework or worksheet. (3) the participant had a similar quantity of language and cognition development as the normal students but the quality they reached was not as high as the normal students.
Finally, this research provided three teaching suggestions for the teachers who have students with reading disabilities. In addition, this research strongly recommended that students with reading disabilities should be placed in resource rooms starting from the second semester of the first grade to compensate their difficulties as soon as possible.

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