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篇  名 馬斯洛需求層次論及其實徵性研究之分析
並列篇名 The Analysis of Maslow's Theory of Need Hierarchy and Its Empirical Study
作  者 李坤崇
發表期刊 臺南師院學報
出版年份 1988 年
卷  期 21 期
頁  次 p.207~259
關鍵字
語言別 中文
中文摘要

本研究旨在以文獻分析法,探討Maslow需求層次論的內涵、分析有關此理論的實徵性研究、了解此理論應用狀況、以及評析此理論之得失。從Maslow重要著來與論述中,探索Maslow需求理論的人性哲學和基本假定、闡述需求層次論之需求分類、需求順序、需求變化、需求滿足與身心健康、自我實現、和顛峰經驗等論點。衡諸143篇有關此理論的實徵性研究文獻,發現大部份均支持Maslow所提之各需求的關係與變化,需求須兼顧個體本身資質、和環境文化等兩因素,自我實現、以及顛峰經驗等四方面的假定,然對Maslow需求分類模式則支持與否各半,唯不支持者不僅無明確方向可尋,亦無法激起其他學者迴響。探究167篇應用此理論之文獻,窺知此理論在心理、教育、工商業、和測驗等領域應用甚廣。綜合評析Maslow需求層次論、有關此理論之實徵性研究與應用、以及諸多學者論述,發現此理論誠為一瑕不掩瑜之理論。

英文摘要

The purpose of this research, based on documentary research, is to synthesize Maslow's theory of need hierarchy and related documents to examine the scope of its application and the Maslow theory's strong and weak points. In order to understand the basic philosophy and key assumption of Maslow need theory and the views of need category, need order, need relationship, need satisfaction, self-actualization and peak-experience, Maslow's writings and treatise were analyzed.
The conceptual and empirical evidence, which include 143 documents, generally tends to support the views of need relationship, self-actualization and peak-experience and to support that needs must include not only in the environment but also in the organism itself, but only partially support: the construction of motivation category. The results of analyzing 167 documents show that the hierarchy of need theory continuous to enjoy a prominent place in psychology, education, industry and commerce. The finding of this research indicates that Maslow theory's merits do outweigh the defects.

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